23 Oct Enhancing Chondrogenic Phenotype for Cartilage Tissue Engineering: Articular Chondrocytes with Mesenchymal Stem Cells. | Tampa Bay | Sarasota | Florida
Articular cartilage exhibits an inherently low rate of regeneration. Consequently, damage to articular cartilage often requires surgical intervention. However, existing treatments generally result in the formation of fibrocartilage tissue, which is inferior to native articular cartilage. As a result, cartilage engineering strategies seek to repair or replace damaged cartilage with an engineered tissue that restores full functionality to the impaired joint. These strategies often involve the use of chondrocytes, yet in vitro expansion and culture can lead to undesirable changes in chondrocyte phenotype. This review focuses on the use of articular chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in either monoculture or coculture for the enhancement of chondrogenesis. Coculture strategies increasingly outperform their monoculture counterparts with regard to chondrogenesis and present unique opportunities to attain chondrocyte phenotype stability in vitro. Methods to prevent chondrocyte dedifferentiation and promote chondrocyte redifferentiation as well as to promote the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs while preventing MSC hypertrophy are discussed.